The anovulatory cycle occurs when there are no signs of ovulation between one menstruation and another: we find out what the causes and consequences are. The menstrual cycle of a woman not only refers to menstruation, but to the whole period from a menstrual flow to another, and that lasts – on average, for women who have regular menstrual cycles – 28 days. More or less in the middle of the month ovulation occurs , that is the release of the egg from one of the ovaries. The egg begins to travel its way to the fallopian tubes and (in summary), if during its journey it encounters a sperm that manages to fertilize it, conception takes place : the fertilized egg is transformed into blastocysts and then into embryos and yes implanted in the uterine wall, where it continues to grow and develop. But what happens if a menstrual cycle is irregular and, for example, ovulation does not occur? In this case it is called anovulatorycycle ,ie without ovulation. It may be a sporadic episode or a constant one, and in this case there could be difficulties for those looking for a pregnancy. For more details visit irregular period pregnancy test calculator
ANOVULATORY CYCLES: WHAT THEY ARE AND HOW TO IDENTIFY THEM
First of all it is essential to remember that menstrual cycles are not all the same , not even for the same woman: they are subject to hormonal changes and to psychological and environmental factors that can influence them from time to time. It should therefore be emphasized that: The fact that you have always had precise cycles does not necessarily mean that all months must be equal. Each cycle is in itself and the variable that determines its length is precisely ovulation, because from that moment the luteal phase begins , which is always the same and in any case never exceeds 16-17 days.
THE SYMPTOMS OF ANOVULATORY CYCLES
There are different ways to know if you are ovulating: one of the methods is that of measuring the basal temperature , that is “at rest”, for several days. When the temperature drops slightly to then rise a few tenths of a degree in the following days (and then lower again) it means that there has been ovulation, and this is considered the most reliable method to know if there was actually ovulation. Another useful tool for identifying ovulation is that of the specific ovulation sticks , which recognize, in the urine, the concentration of two particular hormones: this is the hormone estradiol and the luteinizing hormone LH , whose levels increase near the ‘ovulation. These hormones are easily identified by the appropriate sticks.
THE CAUSES OF ANOVULATORY CYCLES
The reasons why different cycles are anovulatory are different: it can happen frequently during adolescence, when the cycle has not yet regularized, or near the menopause . In some cases, failure to ovulate may depend instead on ovarian dysfunction, polycystic ovary or thyroid dysfunction. Even an excessive body weight (obesity) or too low (anorexia) can alter the menstrual cycle. When the menstrual flow does not appear entirely, however, we speak of amenorrhea . Even during breastfeeding the high concentration of the prolactin hormone can inhibit (but not make impossible) ovulation.
ANOVULATORY CYCLES, REMEDIES
Usually the anovulatory cycle is distinguished, in addition to the lack of appearance of symptoms (which however are not felt by all women, especially if they are not kept “under control” for example with the measurement of the basal temperature) for its irregularity . For women seeking pregnancy, having many anovulatory cycles can be a serious difficulty, since one of the two essential elements for conception is missing, namely the female gamete: the doctor can recommend specific tests to identify the problem and act accordingly. , starting a targeted drug therapy , or, in the most serious cases, turning to a doctor who specializes in treating infertility problems.
HORMONES IN PREGNANCY: WHAT THEY ARE AND HOW THEY MODIFY THE BODY (AND NOT ONLY)
During pregnancy the production of hormones changes: some are produced for the first time, while others are already present and modify the woman’s body. During pregnancy the hormones – always present in the body of the woman as in that of the man – put into effect entirely new processes, which transform the body of the future mother, both externally and internally, and prepare it to accept the growth of the fetus , to face the birth and therefore to breastfeeding. Some hormones already present are produced, depending on the different stages of pregnancy , in different quantities. Other hormones are typical of pregnancy, and disappear, more or less slowly, after the birth of the child. The changes that occur with the production of hormones are then felt both physically and emotionally.
BETA HCG IN PREGNANCY
The Beta hCGhormone , or human chorionic gonadotropin, is, par excellence, the hormone of pregnancy: it occurs only after conception and has an oscillating pattern for the nine months of gestation, therefore it disappears after the birth. It is the hormone that is detected in urine by common do-it-yourself pregnancy tests , and is the first value that is investigated in the blood to confirm pregnancy. It is a hormone that is produced by the trophoblast, that is, the embryonic tissue that turns into a placenta as the pregnancy progresses . Beta production begins about a week after conception, when the embryo is implanted in the uterine wall. In the first weeks of pregnancy the measurement of the presence of Beta in the blood (called “dosage”) is very important to evaluate the progress of gestation, exclude a spontaneous early abortion , and contributes – together with an ultrasound scan – to determine the age gestational.
ESTROGENS IN PREGNANCY
The estrogens are hormones present in childbearing age in all women in various amounts. Their function during pregnancy is first of all to nourish the fetus and ensure its development, but they also modify the woman’s body and in particular the breast. Estrogens contribute to the increase in volume of the uterus to make room for the growth of the fetus, and that of the breast, which will begin to produce colostrum first and therefore the milk that will feed the baby.
PROGESTERONE IN PREGNANCY
The progesterone is another important hormone for women’s health: among other things, determines the course of ‘ ovulation . It therefore favors the implantation of the embryo in the uterus and protects it throughout pregnancy, while preventing a second conception from occurring during pregnancy. After conception, progesterone therefore guarantees the continuation of pregnancy and stimulates breast function. During pregnancy, moreover, the quantity of progesterone is monitored to keep the growth of the fetus under control, and it is shown that its measurement is effective in the prevention of premature births : if the doctor finds a risk of preterm birth, he can prescribe the administration of progesterone-based drugs to delay the onset of labor.
OTHER PREGNANCY HORMONES
Pregnancy represents a period of great changes at the hormonal level, as we have seen: some hormones appear for the first time, others change the quantity. Among these is prolactin , naturally present in small quantities in the body of women (but also in men), which increases considerably during pregnancy and after birth, as it determines the production of breast milk. Other hormones that play an important role during pregnancy are somatotropin , or “growth hormone”, relaxin and endorphins . L ‘ oxytocin (also called love hormone), finally, plays a fundamental role during labor and delivery because it stimulates contractions of the uterus and thus the expulsion of the child. The oxytocin hormone is also administered artificially if it is necessary to induce childbirth : it happens when the presumed date of birth is exceeded by one or two weeks and when labor becomes excessively long, to reduce the risk of complications maternal-fetal).
WHAT TO EAT IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY
In the last period of pregnancy increases the need for protein, but also iron and some fats (omega 3), so it is important to maintain a healthy diet. With the arrival of the third trimester of pregnancy the most has passed and the date of birth is approaching. The fetus continues to grow, the muscles are developed, the lungs gain more and more autonomy and its brain is similar to that of a newborn. In addition, he continues to move : he sucks his finger, kicks and perceives more clearly the sounds coming from outside. Meanwhile, he begins to prepare a fat reserve to deal with the outside world. The fetus’s nutrients arrive as usual from the mother, so even at this stage it is essential to eat in the best way by carefully choosing the foods .
WHAT TO EAT IN THE LAST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY
In this last phase of development the fetus has a particular need for proteins , but also for iron and some fats (omega 3), which the mother can guarantee through a balanced diet. The meat is a good source of protein that the body easily assimilates, but its consumption must be combined with some changes: limit as much as possible too fatty meat, prefer white meat (chicken, turkey) than red (cow , pork) and make sure it is always well cooked. As an alternative to meat you can eat legumes (beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils) that are equally rich in protein. Another important source of nutrition is fish , which in addition to iron and vitamins provides DHA, a type of omega 3 that promotes brain development of the fetus. In some cases, element intake is also recommended in the form of supplements. Steamed or stewed fish should be preferred, not too seasoned and spicy, especially sole, cod, hake, trout, etc. An excellent alternative is eggs , as their albumen is highly proteinic while the yolk (the red part) contains a good amount of vitamins and minerals. However, the consumption of eggs should be limited, since they also contain fats: the recommended limit is two well-cooked eggs per week.
WHAT CHANGES IN THE LAST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY
At this point in pregnancy, the feeling of tiredness may increase , the body is affected by the growth of the uterus and the displacement of the organs and the digestive system slows down. Many women experience frequent heartburn due to the pressure exerted by the fetus on the stomach. Eating could therefore be more tiring, and for this reason it may be useful to make small, light and frequent meals and not to weigh too heavily on particularly elaborate, abundant or fat dishes. Also in the last trimester of pregnancy the increase in body weight on the one hand and a greater sedentary lifestyle on the other can cause an increase in pressure , which causes discomfort and swelling of the legs. For this reason it is advisable to limit the intake of salt , which increases water retention, and above all to hydrate as much as possible, drinking at least a liter and a half of water per day (two would be better) to accompany a good consumption of fruit , rich in mineral salts and vitamins.
During the last month of pregnancy the fetus is formed and is preparing to cross the birth canal. To better address the moment it is useful to continue to take care of your diet, even asking your doctor for advice. Many women are prescribed supplements during pregnancy in order to ensure the supply of vitamins and minerals necessary for growth, but they cannot be understood as alternatives to a healthy diet. Even in the last trimester of pregnancy a moderate physical activity , finally, if the doctor does not recommend it, helps the mental and physical balance of the future mother.